In May 2016, we detected a generic form grabber and IBAN (International Bank Account Number) swap script injection targeting financial institutions across the world. IBAN swapping is a technique fraudsters use to first obtain access to an account, then exchange a legitimate account number with the attacker’s destination mule account number before a funds transfer takes place.
In the process of identifying the script, our analysts discovered a target pattern of IBAN number formats that matched those of various countries in Europe and the Middle East. The script author also had been routinely upgrading the script injection content, including changes that blocked requests without correct referrers set in the request, hidden fields, and a keyboard simulation component designed to change values in the user page.
Targeted Country Patterns
The script target pattern matches the IBAN number formats for several countries such as Albania, Cyprus, Hungary, Lebanon, and Poland. Poland and Hungary share the exact IBAN number format matches, while Albania, Cyprus and Lebanon match because the bank identifiers are only numeric in those countries. For countries such as Azerbaijan and Guatemala, the format is the correct length, but because they use non-numeric bank identifiers, these countries do not match the pattern in the malicious script.
Figure 1: Countries attacked by the IBAN form grabber
Fundamental Features of the Script
Attack URL: hxxps://googlapi.be/F2/00000123456789012345/1234567890.js
Attack IP Address: 184.108.40.206
The malicious script—just 41 lines of code in total—is a simple web injection designed to grab forms, and it uses regex to search for a specific pattern: